Active learning - WikipediaIn operant conditioning , punishment is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. As with reinforcement , it is the behavior , not the animal, that is punished. Whether a change is or is not punishing is determined by its effect on the rate that the behavior occurs, not by any "hostile" or aversive features of the change. For example, a painful stimulus which would act as a punisher for most people may actually reinforce some behaviors of masochistic individuals. Punishment is not a mirror effect of reinforcement. In experiments with laboratory animals and studies with children, punishment decreases the likelihood of a previously reinforced response only temporarily, and it can produce other "emotional" behavior wing-flapping in pigeons, for example and physiological changes increased heart rate, for example that have no clear equivalents in reinforcement.
What is ACTIVE LEARNING? What does ACTIVE LEARNING mean? ACTIVE LEARNING meaning & explanation
[PDF] The Principles of Learning and Behavior: Active Learning Edition (with Workbook) [Full Ebook]
Active learning is a form of learning in which teaching strives to involve students in the learning process more directly than in other methods. Bonwell and Eison state "that in active learning, students participate in the process and students participate when they are doing something besides passively listening. They cite literature that indicates that to learn, students must do more than just listen: They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. It relates to the three learning domains referred to as knowledge, skills and attitudes KSA , and that this taxonomy of learning behaviours can be thought of as "the goals of the learning process". There are a wide range of alternatives for the term "active learning" like learning through play, technology-based learning, activity-based learning, group work, project method, etc. Active learning is the opposite of passive learning ; it is learner-centered , not teacher-centered, and requires more than just listening; the active participation of each and every student is a necessary aspect in active learning.