Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
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This book is printed acidfree papet:. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Requests to! Includes bibliographical references 8IId iIIdex. EducaIionaI tests and measuremeots-United States.
A test or examination informally, exam or evaluation is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge , skill , aptitude , physical fitness , or classification in many other topics e. Tests vary in style, rigor and requirements. For example, in a closed book test, a test taker is usually required to rely upon memory to respond to specific items whereas in an open book test, a test taker may use one or more supplementary tools such as a reference book or calculator when responding.
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Educational measurement refers to the use of educational assessments and the analysis of data such as scores obtained from educational assessments to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students. The approaches overlap with those in [psychometrics]. Educational measurement is the assigning of numerals to traits such as achievement, interest, attitudes, aptitudes, intelligence and performance. The aim of theory and practice in educational measurement is typically to measure abilities and levels of attainment by students in areas such as reading, writing, mathematics, science and so forth. Traditionally, attention focuses on whether assessments are reliable and valid. In practice, educational measurement is largely concerned with the analysis of data from educational assessments or tests.
Teachers teach content then test students. This cycle of teaching and testing is familiar to anyone who has been a student. Tests seek to see what students have learned. However, there can be other more complicated reasons as to why schools use tests. At the school level, educators create tests to measure their students' understanding of specific content or the effective application of critical thinking skills.